Physicians and Surgeons

Career, Salary and Education Information

What They Do: Physicians and surgeons diagnose and treat injuries or illnesses.

Work Environment: Many physicians and surgeons worked in physicians’ offices. Others worked in hospitals, in academia, or for the government.

How to Become One: Physicians and surgeons have demanding education and training requirements. Physicians typically need a bachelor's degree, a degree from a medical school, which takes 4 years to complete, and, depending on their specialty, 3 to 7 years in internship and residency programs.

Salary: Wages for physicians and surgeons are among the highest of all occupations, with a median wage equal to or greater than $208,000.

Job Outlook: Overall employment of physicians and surgeons is projected to grow 3 percent over the next ten years, slower than the average for all occupations.

Related Careers: Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of physicians and surgeons with similar occupations.

Following is everything you need to know about a career as a physician or surgeon with lots of details. As a first step, take a look at some of the following jobs, which are real jobs with real employers. You will be able to see the very real job career requirements for employers who are actively hiring. The link will open in a new tab so that you can come back to this page to continue reading about the career:

Top 3 Physician Jobs

  • Physician Assistant PA-C, Part-Time, HRA - Hueman Risk Adjustment - Monterey, CA

    Hueman is hiring Physician Assistants to complete Health Risk Assessments (HRAs) in the home of Medicare and Medicaid members in Monterey County, CA. This position offers certified Physician ...

  • Physician- Emergency Medicine - Amky Physician Services LLC - Palmdale, CA

    Emergency Department: * 35 Bed Emergency Department + 8 Bed Fast Track * 55,000 Annual Patient Volume * 52 hours of physician coverage daily * 56 hours of MLP coverage daily Back-up services

  • Physician Assistant - ApolloMed - Alhambra, CA

    Physician Assistant Job Responsibilities: * Promotes and maintains patient health by providing medical services under the supervision of a physician . * Contributes to a physician 's efficiency by ...

See all Physician jobs

Top 3 Surgeon Jobs

  • Orthopedic Total Joint Surgeon - Gpac - Jacksonville, FL

    Orthopedic Total Joint Surgeon needed! My clients are offering an extraordinary opportunity to join a hardworking Privately Owned Practice. A collegial team of Orthopedic Surgeons with a focus on ...

  • Experienced General Surgeon needed near Denver, Colorado - HDA MD Staff - Denver, CO

    Experienced General Surgeon needed near Denver, Colorado Seeking an experienced board certified General Surgeon to join an expanding team near Denver. The city now serves as the commercial and retail ...

  • Vascular Surgeon - Posterity Group, LLC - Nashville, TN

    Vascular Surgeon - Oklahoma City, OK ($454,146.00 - $503,781.00/YR) RELOCATION ASSISTANCE IS AVAILABLE! Posterity Group LLC is a Federal Government Contractor that is currently recruiting for a ...

See all Surgeon jobs

What Physicians and Surgeons Do[About this section] [To Top]

Physicians and surgeons diagnose and treat injuries or illnesses. Physicians examine patients; take medical histories; prescribe medications; and order, perform, and interpret diagnostic tests. They often counsel patients on diet, hygiene, and preventive healthcare. Surgeons operate on patients to treat injuries, such as broken bones; diseases, such as cancerous tumors; and deformities, such as cleft palates.

There are two types of physicians, with similar degrees: M.D. (Medical Doctor) and D.O. (Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine). Both use the same methods of treatment, including drugs and surgery, but D.O.s place additional emphasis on the body's musculoskeletal system, preventive medicine, and holistic (whole-person) patient care. D.O.s are most likely to be primary care physicians, although they can be found in all specialties.

Duties of Physicians and Surgeons

Physicians and surgeons typically do the following:

  • Take a patient's medical history
  • Update charts and patient information to show current findings and treatments
  • Order tests for nurses or other healthcare staff to perform
  • Review test results to identify any abnormal findings
  • Recommend and design a plan of treatment
  • Address concerns or answer questions that patients have about their health and well-being
  • Help patients take care of their health by discussing topics such as proper nutrition and hygiene

Physicians and surgeons work in one or more specialties. The following are examples of types of physicians and surgeons:

Anesthesiologists focus on the care of surgical patients and pain relief. They administer drugs (anesthetics) that reduce or eliminate the sensation of pain during an operation or another medical procedure. During surgery, they are responsible for adjusting the amount of anesthetic as needed, and monitoring the patient's heart rate, body temperature, blood pressure, and breathing. They also work outside of the operating room, providing pain relief for patients in the intensive care unit, for women in labor and delivery of babies, and for patients who suffer from chronic pain. Anesthesiologists work with other physicians and surgeons to decide on treatments and procedures before, during, and after surgery.

Family and general physicians assess and treat a range of conditions that occur in everyday life. These conditions include sinus and respiratory infections to broken bones. Family and general physicians typically have regular, long-term patients.

General internists diagnose and provide nonsurgical treatment for a range of problems that affect internal organ systems such as the stomach, kidneys, liver, and digestive tract. Internists use a variety of diagnostic techniques to treat patients through medication or hospitalization. They work mostly with adult patients.

General pediatricians provide care for infants, children, teenagers, and young adults. They specialize in diagnosing and treating problems specific to younger people. Most pediatricians treat common illnesses, minor injuries, and infectious diseases, and administer vaccinations. Some pediatricians specialize in pediatric surgery or serious medical conditions that commonly affect younger patients, such as autoimmune disorders or chronic ailments.

Obstetricians and gynecologists (OB/GYNs) provide care related to pregnancy, childbirth, and the female reproductive system. They treat and counsel women throughout their pregnancy and deliver babies. They also diagnose and treat health issues specific to women, such as breast cancer, cervical cancer, hormonal disorders, and symptoms related to menopause.

Psychiatrists are primary mental health physicians. They diagnose and treat mental illnesses through a combination of personal counseling (psychotherapy), psychoanalysis, hospitalization, and medication. Psychotherapy involves regular discussions with patients about their problems. The psychiatrist helps them find solutions through changes in their behavioral patterns, explorations of their past experiences, or group and family therapy sessions. Psychoanalysis involves long-term psychotherapy and counseling for patients. Psychiatrists may prescribe medications to correct chemical imbalances that cause some mental illnesses.

Surgeons treat injuries, diseases, and deformities through operations. Using a variety of instruments, a surgeon corrects physical deformities, repairs bone and tissue after injuries, or performs preventive or elective surgeries on patients. Although a large number perform general surgery, many surgeons choose to specialize in a specific area. Specialties include orthopedic surgery (the treatment of the musculoskeletal system), neurological surgery (treatment of the brain and nervous system), cardiovascular surgery, and plastic or reconstructive surgery. Like other physicians, surgeons examine patients, perform and interpret diagnostic tests, and counsel patients on preventive healthcare. Some specialist physicians also perform surgery.

Physicians and surgeons may work in a number of other medical and surgical specialties and subspecialties. The following specialists are some of the most common examples:

  • Allergists (specialists in diagnosing and treating hay fever or other allergies)
  • Cardiologists (heart specialists)
  • Dermatologists (skin specialists)
  • Gastroenterologists (digestive system specialists)
  • Ophthalmologists (eye specialists)
  • Pathologists (specialists who study body tissue to see if it is normal or abnormal)
  • Radiologists (specialists who review and interpret x rays and other images and deliver radiation treatments for cancer and other illnesses)

Physicians in healthcare establishments work daily with other healthcare staff, such as registered nurses, other physicians, medical assistants, and medical records and health information technicians.

Some physicians may choose to work in fields that do not involve patient care, such as medical research or public policy.

Work Environment for Physicians and Surgeons[About this section] [To Top]

Physicians and surgeons hold about 761,700 jobs. Employment in the detailed occupations that make up physicians and surgeons is distributed as follows:

Physicians, all other 280,800
Family medicine physicians 112,200
General internal medicine physicians 63,700
Emergency medicine physicians 39,500
Pediatricians, general 36,800
Anesthesiologists 34,100
Radiologists 32,400
Surgeons, all other 30,700
Psychiatrists 27,900
Obstetricians and gynecologists 23,600
Cardiologists 20,300
Orthopedic surgeons, except pediatric 16,800
Physicians, pathologists 12,100
Ophthalmologists, except pediatric 12,000
Dermatologists 10,100
Neurologists 7,800
Pediatric surgeons 900

The largest employers of physicians and surgeons are as follows:

Offices of physicians 53%
Hospitals, state, local, and private 25%
Self-employed workers 6%
Federal government 5%
Outpatient care centers 4%

Physicians and surgeons work in both clinical and nonclinical settings. Some examples of clinical settings are physicians' offices and hospitals, including academic hospitals associated with residency programs or schools of medicine. Nonclinical settings include government agencies, nonprofit organizations, and insurance companies.

In clinical settings, physicians may work as part of a group practice or healthcare organization. These arrangements allow them to coordinate patient care but give them less independence than solo practitioners have.

Physicians and surgeons may stand for long periods throughout the day. Other working conditions may vary by specialty. For example, surgeons and anesthesiologists usually work in a sterile environment and must follow protocol to maintain it during procedures.

Physician and Surgeon Work Schedules

Most physicians and surgeons work full time. Some work more than 40 hours per week. Many physicians and surgeons work long shifts, which may include irregular and overnight hours or being on call. Physicians and surgeons may travel between their offices and the hospital to care for patients. While on call, a physician may need to address a patient’s concerns over the phone or make an emergency visit to another location, such as a nursing home.

How to Become a Physician or Surgeon[About this section] [To Top]

Get the education you need: Find schools for Physicians and Surgeons near you!

Physicians and surgeons have demanding education and training requirements. Physicians typically need a bachelor's degree, a degree from a medical school, which takes 4 years to complete, and, depending on their specialty, 3 to 7 years in internship and residency programs.

Education for Physicians and Surgeons

Most applicants to medical school have at least a bachelor's degree, and many have advanced degrees. Although no specific major is required, students usually complete undergraduate work in biology, chemistry, physics, math, and English. Students also may take courses in the humanities and social sciences. In addition, some students volunteer at local hospitals or clinics to gain experience in a healthcare setting.

Medical schools are highly competitive. Most applicants must submit transcripts, scores from the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), and letters of recommendation. Schools also consider an applicant's personality, leadership qualities, and participation in extracurricular activities. Most schools require applicants to interview with members of the admissions committee.

A few medical schools offer combined undergraduate and medical school programs that last 6 to 8 years.

Students spend most of the first 2 years of medical school in laboratories and classrooms, taking courses such as anatomy, biochemistry, pharmacology, psychology, medical ethics, and in the laws governing medicine. They also gain practical skills; learning to take medical histories, examine patients, and diagnose illnesses.

During their last 2 years, medical students work with patients under the supervision of experienced physicians in hospitals and clinics. Through rotations in internal medicine, family practice, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, psychiatry, and surgery, they gain experience in diagnosing and treating illnesses in a variety of areas.

Physician and Surgeon Training

After medical school, almost all graduates enter a residency program in their specialty of interest. A residency usually takes place in a hospital and varies in duration, generally lasting from 3 to 7 years, depending on the specialty.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations for Physicians and Surgeons

All states require physicians and surgeons to be licensed; requirements vary by state. To qualify for a license, candidates must graduate from an accredited medical school and complete residency training in their specialty.

All physicians and surgeons also must pass a standardized national licensure exam. M.D.s take the U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE). D.O.s take the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination (COMLEX-USA). For specific state information about licensing, contact your state's medical board.

Certification is not required for physicians and surgeons; however, it may increase their employment opportunities. M.D.s and D.O.s seeking board certification in a specialty may spend up to 7 years in residency training; the length of time varies with the specialty. To become board certified, candidates must complete a residency program and pass a specialty certification exam from a certifying board including the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS), the American Osteopathic Association (AOA), or the American Board of Physician Specialties (ABPS).

Important Qualities for Physicians and Surgeons

Communication skills. Physicians and surgeons need to be excellent communicators. They must communicate effectively with their patients and other healthcare support staff.

Compassion. Patients who are sick or injured may be in extreme pain or distress. Physicians and surgeons must treat patients and their families with compassion and understanding.

Detail oriented. Patients must receive appropriate treatment and medications. Physicians and surgeons must accurately monitor and record various pieces of information related to patient care.

Dexterity. Physicians and surgeons may work with very precise and sometimes sharp tools, and mistakes can have serious consequences.

Leadership skills. Physicians who work in their own practice must manage a staff of other professionals.

Organizational skills. Good recordkeeping and other organizational skills are critical in both medical and business settings.

Patience. Physicians and surgeons may work for long periods with patients who need special attention. Persons who fear medical treatment may require more patience.

Physical stamina. Physicians and surgeons should be comfortable lifting or turning disabled patients, or performing other physical tasks. Surgeons may spend a great deal of time bending over patients during surgery.

Problem-solving skills. Physicians and surgeons need to evaluate patients' symptoms and administer the appropriate treatments. They need to do this quickly if a patient's life is threatened.

Physician and Surgeon Salaries[About this section] [More salary/earnings info] [To Top]

Wages for physicians and surgeons are among the highest of all occupations, with a median wage equal to or greater than $208,000 per year. Median wages showing the differences in pay between types of physicians and surgeons are not available, but mean (average) annual wages for physicians and surgeons are as follows:

Anesthesiologists $331,190
Obstetricians and gynecologists $296,210
Surgeons $294,520
Physicians and surgeons, all other $255,110
Psychiatrists $249,760
Internists, general $242,190
Family and general practitioners $235,930
Pediatricians, general $198,420

Most physicians and surgeons work full time. Some work more than 40 hours per week. Many physicians and surgeons work long shifts, which may include irregular and overnight hours or being on call. Physicians and surgeons may travel between their offices and the hospital to care for patients. While on call, a physician may need to address a patient’s concerns over the phone or make an emergency visit to another location, such as a nursing home.

Job Outlook for Physicians and Surgeons[About this section] [To Top]

Overall employment of physicians and surgeons is projected to grow 3 percent over the next ten years, slower than the average for all occupations.

Despite limited employment growth, about 23,800 openings for physicians and surgeons are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Most of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.

See all medical jobs.

Employment of Physicians and Surgeons

Projected employment of physicians and surgeons varies by occupation. Population growth and an increasing number of older adults, who have a higher likelihood than young people of experiencing health problems and of needing complex care, is expected to drive overall employment growth for physician and surgeons.

Growing demand for psychiatric care and improved access to mental health services will contribute to demand for psychiatrists.

As rates of chronic illnesses such as diabetes, cancer, and heart disease increase, people will seek high levels of care that use the latest technologies, diagnostic tests, and therapies.

Employment projections data for Physicians and Surgeons, 2021-31
Occupational Title Employment, 2021 Projected Employment, 2031 Change, 2021-31
Percent Numeric
Physicians and surgeons 761,700 783,100 3 21,400
  Physicians 701,300 720,700 3 19,400
  Anesthesiologists 34,100 34,500 1 400
  Cardiologists 20,300 20,900 3 600
  Dermatologists 10,100 10,400 3 300
  Emergency medicine physicians 39,500 40,800 3 1,300
  Family medicine physicians 112,200 115,900 3 3,700
  General internal medicine physicians 63,700 65,000 2 1,300
  Neurologists 7,800 8,000 3 200
  Obstetricians and gynecologists 23,600 24,000 2 400
  Pediatricians, general 36,800 37,200 1 400
  Physicians, pathologists 12,100 12,600 4 500
  Psychiatrists 27,900 30,300 9 2,400
  Radiologists 32,400 33,600 4 1,200
  Physicians, all other 280,800 287,500 2 6,700
  Surgeons 60,400 62,400 3 2,000
  Ophthalmologists, except pediatric 12,000 12,800 6 800
  Orthopedic surgeons, except pediatric 16,800 17,300 3 400
  Pediatric surgeons 900 900 2 0
  Surgeons, all other 30,700 31,500 3 800


A portion of the information on this page is used by permission of the U.S. Department of Labor.


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